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Difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles




Voluntary or striated muscles are those who act according to the wishes of man or are under the control of while involuntary muscles they are not under control. Biceps, respiratory, digestive and genitourinary muscles are where voluntary muscles are located, while abdominal muscles, motor muscles, middle ear muscles, diaphragm are examples of involuntary muscles.

Movement and locomotion are the main characteristics of organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular. For this action there is a special type of tissue called muscle tissue, and the cells are called muscle cells. These muscle tissues arise from the embryonic mesoderm. These tissues interact with each other and thus support the movements of the body and its various parts.

In the attached article, we will cover the basic difference between these two types of muscles and their brief description.

Comparison table

Basis for comparison Volitional muscles Reluctant muscles
Also known as Cross-striated, striated or skeletal muscles. No stripes, no streaks, smooth muscles.
Form Long, cylindrical and unbranched. Small and spindly.
Cell type Multinuclear. single core.
The presence of a core The nucleus is present at the periphery (periphery). The core is centrally located.
Sarcolemma he is fat It’s thin
Shrinkage is under control Central nervous system. Autonomic nervous system.
Type of contractions Strong and fast. Rhythmic and free.
Energy demand It requires a lot of energy. It requires low energy.
Found in Organs for voluntary movement such as motor muscles, tongue, throat, diaphragm, middle ear muscles, lobes of abdominal muscles under the skin. They are attached to the bone. Organs that perform automatic movements, such as the genitourinary system, digestive tract, respiratory tract, glandular ducts, blood vessels,
ciliary muscles. They are present in the walls of internal organs.
Intercalation disc Absent. Absent.
Muscle fatigue They get tired easily. Fatigue slowly.
Functions They are controlled by our will. They are not controlled by our will.
They get tired and need rest at regular intervals. They do not get tired and can work continuously.

Definition of voluntary muscles

Voluntary muscles make up about 40% of body weight. They are under the control of the peripheral and central nervous system. Striated, skeletal or striated are other names for voluntary muscles. In the human body, they are found in bundles of muscle fibers. They are long and are located near the bones.

Bundles of muscle fibers are bounded by sarcolemma, which contains sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum and has no nucleus. All muscles are covered with epithelium, which is a type of connective tissue. Each muscle ending is attached to the bone by tendons. Between each working fiber there are dark and light bands called myofibrils.

Muscle structure of a volunteer

(i) As noted, muscle fibers are filamentous, unbranched, and cylindrical, ranging from 1 mm to 30 cm.

(ii) Sarcolemma – It has two layers – plasma membrane and basement membrane. It is a transparent membrane and surrounds the muscle fibers.

(iii) Sarcoplasm – resembles the cytoplasm of a cell, and since it is present in a muscle fiber, it is called sarcoplasm.

(iv) Syncytial – nuclei are present under the layer or sarcolemma, they are oval and flat.

(v) Sarcosomes – Apart from cell nuclei, cytoplasm, there are many types of enzymes, fat droplets, as well as mitochondria or sacrosomes, also endoplasmic reticulum or sarcoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies and other organelles.

(vi) Myofibrils or sarcostyle – In the sarcoplasm of muscle fibers there are many parallel elongated rod like strands. This rod-like structure is called myofibrils or sarcostyles. Because of this, muscle contraction and relaxation is possible.

Definition of involuntary muscles

Also known as muscles without tension or without belts . They are also known as visceral muscles because they are present in the walls of internal organs like bladder, uterus, digestive tract etc. They are not controlled by their own desire which are called involuntary muscles.

Muscle fiber cells are long, thin and spindle-shaped, but structurally very simple. In the center of each cell is an oval nucleus. The nucleus is surrounded by sarcoplasm. Long, thin, parallel filaments called myofibrils are present in the sarcoplasm. These muscles do not show dark and light bands, although actin and myosin are present.

Key differences between voluntary and involuntary muscles

The following is an important difference between voluntary and involuntary muscles:

  1. Volitional muscles are also known as striated or skeletal muscles while involuntary muscles they are also known as smooth muscles, without striated cords.
  2. There are voluntary muscles long, cylindrical and unbranchedand involuntary muscles are small and spindly .
  3. There are voluntary muscles multinuclear, and the core is on the periphery (circumference). Involuntary muscles are not concise, and the core is centrally located.
  4. Sarcolemma in striated muscles it is thick, while in striated muscles it is thin.
  5. Voluntary muscles contract very quickly and strongly, and the contraction is under the control of the central nervous system. In involuntary muscles, the contraction is rhythmic and slow, and the contraction is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
  6. Involuntary muscles, energy demand is high but low in involuntary muscles.
  7. Voluntary muscles are located in the executive organs voluntary movements, such as locomotor muscles, tongue, throat, diaphragm, middle ear muscles, muscles of the abdominal wall under the skin. They are attached to the bone. On the contrary, the involuntary work of the muscular organs automatic movements, such as the genitourinary system, digestive tract, respiratory tract, glandular ducts, blood vessels, ciliary muscles. They are present in the walls of internal organs.
  8. Intercalated disc it is absent in both muscle types, and muscles are easily fatigued by voluntary muscles, although muscle fatigue is slow in involuntary muscles.
  9. There are voluntary muscles managed by our will, they also get tired and need rest at regular intervals. On the other hand, involuntary muscles Not are under control of our will, and they don’t even get tired and can work continuously.

Application

We talked about voluntary and involuntary muscles and their importance. We also discovered that the muscular system is also needed not only for movement or locomotion, but also for protecting the body from external impact. Therefore, they are important for the body.

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