Warszawianka, krakowiak, turki and Cieszynianki grow in gardens and on balconies. Do you know what these plants are? Check!

Some popular flowers are given colloquial, often regional, names. This is the case, for example, with Warszawianka, Krakowiak and Turks, while Cieszynianka is the official, botanical name of a charming plant that blooms in early spring. Check which flowers are hidden under these names.


Double cosmosalso known as thenare extremely popular garden flowers, also known as Warsaw. It is easy to grow and has colorful flowers. It comes from Central America, but has settled forever in field gardens, sometimes it is also associated with a traditional country garden. Cosmos has dill-like leaves and flowers with eight elongated petals, which can be white, in various shades of pink and red, and sometimes shaded. The center of the flower is yellow. Warszawians are quite impressive plants, as they can grow up to 1.5 m tall, but have a delicate open habit.

Cosmos are hardy, honey-bearing, beautiful, and at the same time … it is enough to sow them to grow well. They do not need fertile soil, they like to grow on sandy soil, they tolerate drought, like the sun. They are not perennials, but they are happy to self-sow. And it is said that this resistance contributed to the creation of the name Warszawianka – because the cosmos managed to grow by itself on the ruins of Warsaw destroyed during the war.

Pelargoniums are famous and favorite flowers. They have several species and many varieties. down pelargonium bedding with red flowers in the south of Poland, the name stuck krakowiaks. Its origin is unclear, but the large, red blooms that crown the geranium bushes can be linked to the traditional Kraków cap.

This type of geranium stands out for its upright, bushy habit. A darker edge often appears on the leaves. But, of course, we grow krakovjak because of the flowers collected in large and dense inflorescences. In addition to red, pelargoniums have various colors – they are white, salmon, in various shades of pink, even their red is very diverse.

At the same time, Krakowiaki are hardy plants – they perfectly tolerate even strong sun and survive a temporary lack of water. They bloom for a very long time, from May, almost until frost. They can be overwintered (but not outside). It is worth remembering that bedding pelargoniums, as their name suggests, can and should be planted in beds.

Tagetes are another extremely popular flower. Regionally, primarily in Wielkopolska, they are the so-called Turks (their other names are stinkers, students, bulls and cinderellas). This name, according to Przegląd Wielkopolski, could come from the German name of these flowers, i.e. “Turkish carnations”.
There are several types of turkeys (spreading, tall, narrow-leaved tagetes), which differ in the size and shape of the flowers. And these really resemble miniature carnations, except that they are usually in shades of yellow and orange, even with the addition of brown.

Turkeys are among the easiest flowers to grow (sun and a little water are enough for them), they can be planted in flower beds and in containers. Turks look nice with krakowiaks. It is worth knowing that they have a positive effect on the soil in which they grow and are a great companion not only to other flowers, but also to vegetables. They also have edible flower petals.

Cieszynianka wiosenna is, for a change, the official name of the plant (Sanicula epipactis), which in Poland it grows mainly in Cieszyn and its vicinity. It has a very interesting appearance and can be grown in gardens (it is protected in nature). Cieszynianki bloom in spring – usually from March/April to May. They are not very tall plants with small yellow flowers. Their most decorative element, which at first glance can be mistaken for petals, are the green so-called bracts, i.e. transformed leaves. It is worth planting Cieszynianki in shady places, preferably under deciduous trees.

These flowers are connected not only with an interesting name, but also with a legend, because their appearance in Poland is very limited. So where did they come from? Well, the story links it to the Swedes who occupied Cieszyn Castle in the 17th century. One of the soldiers was killed, and the girl who fell in love with him, at his request, poured earth on his grave, which he carried in a bag around his neck. The Cieszynians were to grow out of it. The problem, however, is that these plants do not appear in Sweden. However, it is possible that they were indeed related to the Austrian army, which also ravaged Cieszyn Silesia during the Thirty Years’ War. And in the Austrian Alps, Cieszynians grow as much as possible.

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